Saccharification - Hydrolysis of starch or an intermediate starch hydrolysis product e.g. maltodextrin to give a glucose syrup, or D-glucose.
Sago starch - Starch from the genera Metroxylon sagu Rottboel and Metroxylon rumphii Martins. It is typically found in Southeast Asia and sourced from the pith of the sago palm tree.
Scraped surface heat exchanger Process equipment used to heat higher viscosity fluids in the food industry. The food product passes through a central circular chamber with scrapers as heat is applied from an outer jacket.
Sensorial properties - The sensorial properties of a starch are extremely important in determining its suitability for specific food applications. These include taste, mouthfeel, touch, odor, visual appearance etc. Sensorial properties are normally assessed by a trained panel operating in a controlled environment.
Set back - Used as a synonym for retrogradation to describe the rise in paste viscosity as a starch paste cools.
Shear stability - The shear stability is defined as the resistance to viscosity breakdown of a starch paste as shear is applied. Highly crosslinked starches are used for their good shear stability.
Shelf stability - Shelf stability is defined as the maintenance of the original properties of a product as it is stored for appropriate periods of time in varying conditions of temperature, relative humidity, incident sunlight etc. The properties to be maintained may include color, viscosity, taste, texture, acidity, freedom from syneresis etc. .
Short texture - The texture of a liquid composition is referred to as being "short" when it is not cohesive and is free from stringing. Starch gels prepared from highly crosslinked starches typically exhibit a short texture. Short, cuttable, rigid textures are associated with increased amylose levels in starch. Some high amylose starch hybrids are used for quick setting confectionery applications which exploit the rapid setting and short texture required in these products.
Solubilized starch - Starch which has been either intentionally or unintentionally rendered water-soluble as a result of processing. The term is often used to refer to the small amount of starch which is solubilized unintentionally, e.g. by drying at excessive temperatures. High levels of chemical modification, particularly thinning and etherification, can lead to significant yield losses due to the formation of solubles.
Solution stable dextrins A new type of dextrin characterized by very high levels of solution stability.
Sorbitol - . Is produced industrially by the catalytic hydrogenation of D-glucose which has been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Unlike reducing sugars, sorbitol does not undergo browning reactions with amines and amino acids. Its relative sweetness compared to sucrose is between 50 and 60. It is stable to mild alkaline and acidic conditions and will not react with other ingredients in the usual food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations.
Sorghum starch - Starch from various species of the genus Sorghum Persoon.
Stabilization - This term is sometimes used to indicate the presence of a monofunctional chemical substituent which has the effect of stabilizing paste viscosity. These stabilized modified starches may be, for example, hydroxypropyl or carboxymethyl starch ethers or the monofunctional substituents can be phosphate or acetyl ester groups. Generally the D.S. [degree of substitution] of these starches is between 0.01 and 0.2. The substituent groups have the effect of providing steric hindrance to chain association which stabilizes viscosity by preventing possible retrogradation.
Starch - A carbohydrate polymer occurring in granular form certain plant species notably cereals, tubers, and pulses such as corn, wheat, rice, tapioca potato, pea etc. The polymer consists of linked anhydro-a-D-glucose units. It may have either a mainly linear structure (amylose) or a branched structure (amylopectin). A single plant species may exist as hybrids with various proportions of amylose and amylopectin e.g. high amylose corn. The molecular weight of the constituent polymers, particularly amylose, varies between different starch sources. All starches form viscous pastes when sufficiently cooked in water but there are significant differences in paste texture, viscosity, and stability.
Starch acetate - Starch ester in which some or all of the available hydroxyl groups have been esterified by acetyl groups usually by treatment with acetic anhydride. Starch acetate paste has a lower tendency to form gels than unmodified native starch paste.
Starch alkenyl succinate - A chemically modified starch produced by treating starch with alkenyl succinic anhydride under controlled pH conditions. Commercial alkenyl succinic anhydride is available for use in food in the octenyl form. These starches have lipophilic ("oil-loving") properties and are used in emulsions and encapsulation.
Starch derivatives - Generic term for all products produced from native starch including modified starches and starch hydrolysis products.
Starch ester - A chemically modified starch in which some of the hydroxyl groups have been replaced by ester groups. Acetylation with acetic anhydride is an example of starch esterification.
Starch ether - A chemically modified starch in which some of the hydroxyl groups have been replaced by ether groups. Hydroxypropylation with propylene oxide is an example of starch etherification.
Starch film - The film forming properties of starch are exploited in a number of food applications such as batter coatings, bakery glazes and confectionery coatings. Film forming may be enhanced by chemical modification.
Starch gel - An elastic deformable mass formed from an aqueous dispersion of gelatinized starch which has gone through some degree of retrogradation.
Starch hydrolysate - Product obtained by the acid and/or enzymatic hydrolysis of starch consisting of a mixture of low molecular weight polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and possibly simple sugars.
Starch hydrolysis product - Generic term to describe products such as maltodextrins, glucose syrup and dextrose.
Starch octenyl succinate - Common name given to Starch n-Octenyl succinate which is made by treating starch with n-Octenyl succinic anhydride at pH 8-8.5. This starch derivative is anionic due to a carboxyl group and hydrophobic due to the C8 unsaturated alkene chain. Food uses include encapsulation of flavors and emulsion stabilization.
Starch paste - The viscous colloidal mass resulting from the gelatinization of starch in water. A starch paste is not a solution but contains swollen granules, dissolved amylose, and a number of intermediate species. The stability of starch pastes depends on starch type (amylose/amylopectin ratio), concentration and storage temperature among other factors.
Starch phosphate - Starch ester in which some of the available hydroxyl groups have been esterified by monophosphate groups. Distarch phosphate is very different and refers to the crosslinked product e.g. using phosphorous oxychloride or sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as reagents.
Starch slurry - Aqueous suspension of unswollen starch granules also known as starch suspension and starch milk.
Starch succinate - Starch ester in which some of the available hydroxyl groups have been esterified by succinate groups with or without crosslinking.
Steepwater - Liquid which has been used for soaking and softening (i.e. steeping) corn before wet milling the grain to remove the starch. At the end of the steeping cycle steepwater contains dissolved proteins, minerals, and other substances leached from the corn. Steepwater is used in the production of the wet milling by-product gluten feed which is used in animal feed.
Sterilizable starch - This refers to the very highly crosslinked starch which is used to dust latex surgical gloves to prevent adhesion. This starch must resist the high temperatures encountered when the gloves are subjected to a sterilization process.
Sweetness - The sweetness of simple sugars generally decreases with increasing molecular weight. Thus DP3 is less sweet than maltose (DP2) which in turn is less sweet than dextrose (DP1). Relative sweetness is the level of perceived sweetness compared to that of pure sucrose assessed under the same conditions.
Sweet potato starch - Starch obtained by wet milling the tuberous roots of the species Ipomoea batatas Poiret.
Swelling power - When an aqueous suspension of starch is heated above its gelatinization temperature the granules will undergo irreversible swelling and the degree is a function of the starch type and the presence of any physical or chemical modification. The swelling power is a measure of the hydration capacity of the starch and is expressed as the weight of centrifuged swollen granules, divided by the weight of the original dry starch used to make the paste.
Syneresis - The seepage or release of water from starch pastes or gels, particularly on storage is known as syneresis. Syneresis in food applications may be avoided by choosing a suitable chemically stabilized starch.
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